Steps to the AR Cycle
Action Research Cycle
What is involved in Action Research?
When a practitioner thinks about her/his work, asks herself/himself the following questions, What am I doing?, What do I need to improve, How do I improve it?, and decides to take steps to answer them, this practitioner is doing Action Research – she or he is, therefore, investigating and evaluating her/his work.
Jean McNiff and Jack Whitehead suggest that “In your action enquiry you would identify something of concern, try a different way of doing things, reflect on what was happening, and in the light of your reflections try a new way that may or may not be more successful” (2006, p. 9).
According to McNiff and Whitehead, this process of ‘observe – reflect – act – evaluate – modify – move in new directions’ is typically recognized as action–reflection, and because of the fact that it is usually cyclical, it is referred to action reflection cycle.
Kemmis and McTaggart Action Research Cycle
This action research cycle was proposed by Kemmis and McTaggart and it is represented by a spiral model. Although it might seem to be neat and organized, Kemmis and McTaggart claim that it is not a rigid structure and that “in reality the process is likely to be more fluid, open and responsive” (Koshy, 2005, p. 5).
O'Leary's Cycle of Action Research
In O’Leary’s model, the ‘cycles converge towards better situation understanding and improved action implementation; and are based in evaluative practice that alters between action and critical reflection.’ (p.140).
Macintyre’s Action Research Cycle
In Macintyre’s model, the stages of the action research are represented in the diagram below.