Science & Technology Education Promoting Wellbeing for Individuals, Societies & Environments
After lessons & student activities based on the STEPWISE Pedagogy, students can very independently design & conduct effective research-informed & negotiated action (RiNA) projects like that at right (below on phones) to help overcome STSE harms of their concern.

STEPWISE is needed where governments struggle to overcome many STSE harms.

[You can also view our pedagogy overview video.]

Theory & Historical Background

Theoretical Bases for STEPWISE Pedagogy

Constructivist Learning Theory

The STEPWISE pedagogy above is based on constructivist learning theory; which, as elaborated here, suggests that learners may – sometimes reluctantly – construct unique (although influenced by societies) attitudes, skills & knowledge (ASK) by combining ASK in their brains/bodies with information from sense experiences (e.g., the image below, in which some people see Jesus). As elaborated here, this theory has different implications for each phase of the above STEPWISE pedagogy.

Learning Control Variations

Roger Lock‘s learning control schema below (hovering over ends of continua provide details) posits that teachers should vary control of procedures & conclusions – depending on teaching/learning goals. Applications of this theory for STEPWISE pedagogy are given here.

Lock Model

At this extreme end of the Procedures continuum, the teacher makes all decisions - such as for topic choice, investigation procedures and analyses methods.

At this end of the Conclusions continuum, decisions about conclusions from investigations, etc. depend on available data & theory, for instance, and can vary from one person to another.

At this end of the Conclusions continuum, there is only one - pre-determined - conclusion.

At this end of the Procedures continuum, students control all (except for safety, for example) decisions - such as for topics, investigation procedures and analyses methods.

NoST Education Considerations

As elaborated here, depending on learning control & topics taught, students can develop different positions on the Scientific Theory Profile below (hovering over the graphic provides details). Such learning variations also can depend on teachers’ NoST views.


Antirealists - more or less on this spectrum - believe that scientists (& engineers) cannot develop claims (e.g., laws, theories, etc.) that exactly match phenomena of the world.

Rationalists believe - more or less on this spectrum - that scientists' (& engineers') topics & methods (e.g., experiment/study design, measurements, etc.) are highly systematic, logical, unbiased, unemotional, etc.

Realists believe - more or less on this spectrum - that scientists (& engineers) can develop claims (e.g., laws & theories) that match phenomena of the world.

Naturalists believe - more or less on this spectrum - that scientists' (& engineers') topics & methods (e.g., experiment/study design, measurements, etc.) often are, while somewhat systematic & logical, influenced by personal (e.g., emotional) and social (e.g., economic, political, interpersonal, cultural, gender, racial, etc.) factors.

History of and Rationale for STEPWISE

Education as Instrument of Capitalism

As suggested by Ken Robinson in the video at right/below, education seems embedded in dispositifs that promote economization. Key pro-capitalist roles, as elaborated here, seem to be played by fields of science & technology education – which appear to emphasize: identifying & educating small cohorts of students who may pursue higher education & careers in science & technology (or ‘STEM‘) and many more students who may – to varying extents – function as compliant workers and enthusiastic & unquestioning consumers.

STEPWISE is Necessary Where Governments Have Failed

Humanity is facing myriad harms – like those linked to petroleum-fueled climate disruption – in STSE relationships. Because governments often have not been successful in overcoming them, perhaps largely due to priorities they give to serving capitalists, fields of science & technology education have prime responsibilities and capabilities to educate students about harms and to prepare them to engage in socio-political actions to overcome harms of their concern.

The STEPWISE Theoretical Framework

The STEPWISE project began in 2006 with development of the theoretical framework shown at right/below. This schema arranges learning domains of Ontario science & technology curricula into a tetrahedron to emphasize 2-way relationships among all domains (e.g., STSE Education). Clicking on text in the graphic links to details about each learning domain. Although any one domain could be placed in the centre of the tetrahedron, STSE Actions was placed there to indicate that the framework encourages students to ‘spend’ some of their cultural & social ‘capital’ (e.g., learning in the peripheral domains) on altruistic civic actions to help overcome STSE Harms of their concern. Prioritizing altruistic civic action through science & technology education appears necessary because governments tend to serve capitalist interests such as through promotion of civic possessive individualism and commercialization of fields of science & technology, often at expense of wellbeing of most other living & nonliving things. Although I believe this schema is theoretically-sound, it has been difficult to implement and, so, needs further action research. Consequently, until we learn how to implement it, most teachers use the STEPWISE pedagogy above.