- Represent and solve problems involving the multiplication of two-digit whole numbers by two-digit whole numbers using the area model and using algorithms, and make connections between the two methods.

- Teacher-led, whole-class introduction followed by an exploratory pair-based activity that strengthens students’ understanding of multiplication.

- Instructions for visual multiplication (Appendix A)
- Large chart paper
- Markers
- Paper and pencil crayons for each student
- Multi-coloured sticks/straws (or something similar)

- Give students one minute to draw or write down anything they know about multiplication on large chart paper.
- Suggested questions:
- What is multiplication?
- What do you know about multiplication?
- How do you solve multiplication problems?
- Do you use any “tricks” to solve multiplication problems?

- Suggested questions:
- Have students share ideas with the class and highlight central ideas in multiplication, such as arrays and repeated addition.
- Background information on this multiplication strategy is available at the end of this lesson plan.
- Introduce visual multiplication using coloured lines to show place value (Appendix A).
- Ensure you explain each step with visuals to the students. Demonstrate how you would do a one-digit by one-digit question, as well as a two-digit by two-digit question.
- Explain that the sticks represent the digits of each number and that the intersections of the sticks are counted in a particular way to get your product. Please refer to examples one and two in the resource from The University of Georgia for additional guidance (see More Information below).

- Introduce three-digit by three-digit questions when your class is ready.
- Challenge students to answer a few questions together as a group. Begin with one-digit by one-digit questions then move to two-digit by two-digit questions. Once proficient, have them pair up and challenge each other.
- When students have had an opportunity to practice this method, discuss as a group whether they would use this method of multiplication.
- Challenge students to think about when this method is helpful and when it might not be (e.g., When is this method more laborious than algorithms you know?).
- Ask students to explain how this method works.
- Ask students whether there is a limit to this way of multiplication?

- Are students able to draw out the multiplication questions using the visual multiplication method?
- Are they able to group the intersections together? Do the students understand what the intersection of sticks represents?

**Visual Multiplication** **Further Explained**

In this video from tecmath, they break down each step required to multiply two-digits by two-digits using this method. They also breakdown how to multiply three-digit by two-digit numbers.

**“Chinese Stick Multiplication”: Additional resource**This article from the Mathematics Education program at the University of Georgia breaks down the steps when multiplying one-digit by one-digit numbers, two-digit by two-digit numbers and then three-digit by three digit-numbers using this method. The author has included visual examples to show you exactly how to group the intersections of sticks to find your products.

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